Usually, once it's gone bad you can't. If you can see any part of it in your computer or a file manager in your phone, you MAY be able to recover those files. (May, because seeing the list of file names isn't seeing the files themselves, so seeing the file name is no guarantee that you can access the part of the card that the file itself is on.)
This is one reason for the rule that any data not backed up to at least 2 separate devices (SD card, hard drives, cloud locations) is data you don't need. The odds of Dropbox and your SD card going bad at the same time are more than astronomical. But an SD card WILL go bad. Because of what an SD card is, it has a limited (huge, but limited) number of write cycles. Once that number is exceeded, the card fails - sometimes only partially, but usually totally.
(And the cost of figuring out the number of cycles available on only one single card would probably be in the vicinity of the national debt - it involves quantum mechanics, chaos theory and, since no one's ever going to really try to work out a solution, possibly some form of number manipulation we haven't yet discovered. It's like discovering when a particular atom in fissionable material will fission. We know the average half-life of the material, but we have no idea which atom will split when, and no one's going to try to figure it out.)
So if you have something you don't want to lose, pictures, videos, documents, etc., back them up to a cloud account and a hard drive. Then when the SD card they're on goes bad, all you need is a new SD card to put the data back on.
(BTW, the manufacturer doesn't matter in this case. ALL SD cards will eventually go bad if they're written to. The junkier ones will just fail a lot sooner.)