Should be able to. Union Pay is a debit card from a Chinese bank, so that's not an option. However Ten Pay and Ali Pay are similar to Paypal and Google Wallet, you can register a Visa or Mastercard with them, doesn't have to be a Chinese one, can be from a US bank. I presume you can read Chinese for when you create the appropriate account. You'll very likely be paying international transaction charges though, as well as converting dollars to RMB.
Also if you do make any Chinese on-line payments with a US credit card, it's probably worth informing your credit card issuer as well, in case they determine there's something possibly fraudulent going on and they suspend your card. That happened to me once with using a UK credit card in China.